In addition to identifying significant features in the SCDPDs, we were also interested in testing for correlations between this demographic proxy and seven climate proxies GICC05 ref. To further investigate the relationship between population and climate, we also compared historic 1 October —14 January spatial variation in temperature and precipitation from weather station instrumental data of three closely adjacent regions at the same latitude—Jutland, Scania and the Danish Islands Supplementary Fig.
S3 , Supplementary Table S2. Their historic temperature and precipitation patterns are all highly correlated Supplementary Figs S4—S6 , Supplementary Table S3 , suggesting that their paleoclimates would also have been extremely similar to each other, and although the inferred demographic patterns of the first two regions have similar trajectories, the third is very different Fig.
No evidence of cyclicity typically characterized by at least one peak of positive correlation preceded by a peak of negative correlation at half the wavelength was observed. As an alternative method of illustrating uncertainty in estimated population density because of sampling error in SCDPDs, we applied a bootstrap procedure Supplementary Fig. Within each region, uncalibrated dates were repeatedly sampled with replacement, calibrated and plotted to construct a running CI through calendar time.
In most cases, there appears to be a marked demographic expansion after the first evidence of agriculture, followed by population declines. How to cite this article: Shennan, S. Regional population collapse followed initial agriculture booms in mid-Holocene Europe. Bocquet-Appel, J. Understanding the rates of expansion of the farming system in Europe. Bramanti, B. Genetic discontinuity between local hunter-gatherers and central Europe's first farmers.
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