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In addition to identifying significant features in the SCDPDs, we were also interested in testing for correlations between this demographic proxy and seven climate proxies GICC05 ref. To further investigate the relationship between population and climate, we also compared historic 1 October —14 January spatial variation in temperature and precipitation from weather station instrumental data of three closely adjacent regions at the same latitude—Jutland, Scania and the Danish Islands Supplementary Fig.

S3 , Supplementary Table S2. Their historic temperature and precipitation patterns are all highly correlated Supplementary Figs S4—S6 , Supplementary Table S3 , suggesting that their paleoclimates would also have been extremely similar to each other, and although the inferred demographic patterns of the first two regions have similar trajectories, the third is very different Fig.

No evidence of cyclicity typically characterized by at least one peak of positive correlation preceded by a peak of negative correlation at half the wavelength was observed. As an alternative method of illustrating uncertainty in estimated population density because of sampling error in SCDPDs, we applied a bootstrap procedure Supplementary Fig. Within each region, uncalibrated dates were repeatedly sampled with replacement, calibrated and plotted to construct a running CI through calendar time.

In most cases, there appears to be a marked demographic expansion after the first evidence of agriculture, followed by population declines. How to cite this article: Shennan, S. Regional population collapse followed initial agriculture booms in mid-Holocene Europe. Bocquet-Appel, J. Understanding the rates of expansion of the farming system in Europe. Bramanti, B. Genetic discontinuity between local hunter-gatherers and central Europe's first farmers.

Science , — Pinhasi, R. The genetic history of Europeans. Trends Genet. Ancient DNA reveals lack of continuity between Neolithic hunter-gatherers and contemporary Scandinavians. Craniometric data support a mosaic model of demic and cultural Neolithic diffusion to outlying regions of Europe. Skoglund, P. Origins and genetic legacy of Neolithic farmers and hunter-gatherers in Europe. Itan, Y. The origins of lactase persistence in Europe.

PLoS Comput. Binford, L. Binford S.

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Ammerman, A. Measuring the rate of spread of early farming in Europe. Man 6 , — Fisher, R. The wave of advance of advantageous genes. Paleoanthropological traces of a Neolithic demographic transition. When the world's population took off: the springboard of the Neolithic demographic transition. Science , Gignoux, C. Rapid, global demographic expansions after the origins of agriculture.

Natl Acad. USA , — McEvedy, C. Tallavaara, M. Did the mid-Holocene environmental changes cause the boom and bust of hunter-gatherer population size in eastern Fennoscandia? Holocene 1—11 Williams, A. The use of summed radiocarbon probability distributions in archaeology: a review of methods. Collard, M. Radiocarbon evidence indicates that migrants introduced farming to Britain.

Scott, E. The fourth international radiocarbon intercomparison FIRI. Radiocarbon 45 , — Reimer, P. IntCal09 and Marine09 radiocarbon age calibration curves, 0—50, years cal BP. Radiocarbon 51 , — Surovell, T. Correcting temporal frequency distributions for taphonomic bias. Woodbridge, J. The impact of the Neolithic agricultural transition in Britain: a comparison of pollen-based land cover and archaeological 14 C date-inferred population change.

Stevens, C. Did Neolithic farming fail?

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The case for a Bronze Age agricultural revolution in the British Isles. Antiquity 86 , — Zimmermann, A. Das Neolithikum im Rheinland. Google Scholar.

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Estimations of population density for selected periods between the Neolithic and AD Management of architectural woods and variations in population density in the fourth and third millennia BC Lakes Chalain and Clairvaux, Jura, France. Gronenborn, G. Verrill, L. Use and abandonment of a Neolithic field system at Belderrig, Co. Mayo, Ireland: evidence for economic marginality.

Holocene 20 , — Stuiver, M. Discussions of reporting 14 C data. Radiocarbon 19 , — Sun, ocean, climate and atmospheric 14 CO 2 : an evaluation of causal and spectral relationships. Holocene 3 , Hinz, M. Demography and the intensity of cultural activities: an evaluation of funnel beaker societies , cal BC.

Barry, S. L'Histoire 45—46 Bowles, S. Cultivation of cereals by the first farmers was not more productive than foraging. Gamble, C. The archaeological and genetic foundations of the European population during the Late Glacial: implications for agricultural thinking. Cambridge Archaeol.

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Galate, P. Council for British Archaeology. Vermeersch, P. Radiocarbon Palaeolithic Europe Database v13 Dept. Heaton, T. A Bayesian approach to the estimation of radiocarbon calibration curves: the IntCal09 methodology. Radiocarbon 51 , Ramsey, C. Bayesian analysis of radiocarbon dates. Vinther, B.